Most Shared Articles of January/February

From the Jan/Feb 2019 issue (Vol. 6, Iss. 1), the articles receiving the highest Altmetric Attention Score (Altmetric LLP) are listed below.

Figure 2. Depiction of virus expression and ferrule placement. A, Depiction of ferrule location in dHC and vHC of the same rat. B, Representative image of robust eArchT3.0-eYFP expression and ferrule location in dHC and in (C) vHC. D, Schematic depiction of virus expression and ferrule placement relative to bregma in dHC and in (E) vHC. Atlas plates adapted from Paxinos and Watson (2007).
Postmeal Optogenetic Inhibition of Dorsal or Ventral Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons Increases Future Intake
Reilly Hannapel, Janavi Ramesh, Amy Ross, Ryan T. LaLumiere, Aaron G. Roseberry and Marise B. Parent

Figure 7. CRISPRa-mediated induction of Fosb in hippocampal, striatal, and cortical neurons in vivo. (a-c) Lentiviral infusions were bilaterally targeted to the brain region of interest (Paxinos and Watson, 2009) in adult male rats (n = 4 rats/region). Two weeks following stereotaxic viral infusions, animals were transcardially perfused and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to measure Fosb upregulation. IHC reveals high transduction efficiency of the guide RNA (expressing mCherry, signal not amplified) bilaterally in (a) the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, (b) the nucleus accumbens core (NAc), and (c) the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Fosb protein is enhanced in the hemisphere that was infused with the Fosb-targeting sgRNA (right) compared to the hemisphere that received a sgRNA targeting the bacterial LacZ gene (left). Cell nuclei were stained with DAPI. Scale bar, 500 μm. Schematics of target regions are adapted from Paxinos and Watson. (d-f) dCas9-VPR increases the number of Fosb+ cells in the CA1, NAc, and PFC, compared to a non-targeting control (LacZ). (n = 4, ratio paired t-test; CA1: t 3 = 8.73, P = 0.003, R2 = 0.96; NAc: t 3 = 4.62, P = 0.019, R2 = 0.87; PFC: t 3 = 3.43, P = 0.041, R2 = 0.79). All data are expressed as mean ± s.e.m. Individual comparisons, *P < 0.05 and **P < 0.01. Or: oriens layer, Py: pyramidal cell layer, Rad: radiatum layer, LMol: lacunosum moleculare, DG: dentate gyrus, ac: anterior commissure, LV: lateral ventricle.
A neuron-optimized CRISPR/dCas9 activation system for robust and specific gene regulation
Katherine E. Savell, Svitlana V. Bach, Morgan E. Zipperly, Jasmin S. Revanna, Nicholas A. Goska, Jennifer J. Tuscher, Corey G. Duke, Faraz A. Sultan, Julia N. Burke, Derek Williams, Lara Ianov and Jeremy J. Day

Figure 1 . OD plasticity is preserved in V1 of old EE-mice. A, Examples of optically recorded activity maps induced by visual stimulation of the contralateral and ipsilateral eye in the binocular part of V1 of SC- and EE-raised mice, without (no MD) or after 7 d of MD. Gray scale-coded activity maps [numbers in the top right corner correspond to the quantified V1 activation (×10−4); see gray scale, left], color-coded two-dimensional OD maps (color codes ODI; see scale to the right of OD map), and the histogram of OD scores, including the average ODI, are illustrated. MD eye is indicated by the black circle in the V1 map, open circles indicate an open eye. In both SC- and EE-mice without MD (no MD), the activity patch evoked by visual stimulation of the contralateral eye is darker than the one of the ipsilateral eye, warm colors prevail in the two-dimensional OD maps and ODI values are positive. After MD, V1 activation changes in EE mice but not in SC mice. Whereas V1 of SC mice remained dominated by the deprived (contralateral) eye, there was an OD shift toward the open eye in V1 of EE mice: after MD, V1 of EE mice was now less strongly activated by the contralateral eye so that both eyes activated V1 similarly, colder colors appeared in the OD maps, and the ODI values were lower, i.e., the ODI histograms shifted to the left (blue arrow). ant, Anterior; lat, lateral. Scale bar, 1 mm. B, C, Quantification of visual cortical activation before and after MD. ODI (B) and V1 activation (C) are illustrated. B, Optically imaged ODIs without (no MD) and with MD: symbols represent ODI values of individuals, means are marked by horizontal lines. MD is indicated by half-black squares. C, V1 activation elicited by stimulation of the contralateral (C) or ipsilateral (I) eye. Hatched bar indicates MD eye. Data represented as mean ± SEM. Statistical significance was calculated using ANOVA and p values were corrected for multiple comparisons. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.
Transgenerational Transmission of Enhanced Ocular Dominance Plasticity from Enriched Mice to Their Non-enriched Offspring
Evgenia Kalogeraki, Rashad Yusifov and Siegrid Löwel

The effects of methylphenidate (Ritalin) on the neurophysiology of the monkey caudal prefrontal cortex
Sébastien Tremblay, Florian Pieper, Adam Sachs, Ridha Joober and Julio Martinez-Trujillo

Figure 4. Effect of the multi-hit model on interneuron density and fate in the PFC at (A) P10 and (B) P30. GAD65 cell fate in the PFC [GAD65 (green) and BrdU (red)] of (A) mice treated with saline and reared under normoxia or subjected MIA and reared under CSH. Scale bar = 100 μm. Quantification of (A’) GAD65, (B’) GAD65 and BrdU co-labeled cell density of P10; and (A’’) GAD65, (B’’) GAD65 and BrdU co-labeled cell density at P30 in the PFC (ACC and PL are added for reference) treated with saline and reared under normoxia, subjected to with MIA and reared under normoxia, treated with saline and reared under CSH, subjected to MIA and reared under CSH. Values represent the mean (±SEM) from five to six animals out two pregnancies; *p < 0.05 (Kruskal–Wallis test with Dunn’s multiple comparisons).
Impaired Interneuron Development in a Novel Model of Neonatal Brain Injury
Helene Lacaille, Claire-Marie Vacher, Dana Bakalar Jiaqi J. O’Reilly, Jacquelyn Salzbank and Anna A. Penn

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Category: Announcement
Tags: Neuroscience Research